Belarusian rouble depreciation has not heated tension in Belarusian society
The Belarusian government is hoping to support exports in order to preserve its social function, i.e. ensure high employment rate. In turn, the population stands ready to waive its demand on wage-growth in exchange for stable employment. Smooth devaluation of the Belarusian rouble is unlikely to raise tension in society and lead to open discontent in the form of protests.
Since early 2016, the Belarusian rouble devalued by 16.1%. The Belarusian rouble has already depreciated by more than the government forecast for late 2016 (BYR 18600 per 1 USD).
The Belarusian rouble exchange rate has fluctuated considerably, but the National Bank has not resorted to administrative measures to regulate the foreign exchange market. In addition, the National Bank intends to prevent the strengthening of the national currency, due to the need to support state-owned enterprises-exporters. If foreign currency supply exceeds the demand, the National Bank will be ready to restrain the strengthening of the rouble by buying foreign currency in order to preserve Belarusian exporters’ competitiveness.
The depreciation of the Belarusian rouble months following the 2015 election campaign has not led to growth of tension in society. Since the last presidential elections in October 2015, the Belarusian rouble devalued by 22.5% (BYR 17202 per USD 1 on October 11th, 2015, and BYR 21 095 per USD1 on January 23rd, 2016), while the average salary in Belarus fell by more than USD 200 throughout the year (USD 619 in December 2014 and USD 412 in December 2015). Meanwhile, in 2011, a sharp deterioration in the living standards due to the deep financial crisis and a subsequent recession, has led to numerous street protests not only in Minsk, but also in other Belarusian regions.
President Lukashenka has avoided public assessments of the currency market situation and criticism of the government and the National Bank. However, he, de facto, approved measures undertaken by financial and economic authorities with reference to an informal contract with the population, which envisages ensuring minimum stability in exchange for lowered living standards requirements. “And as the time goes by, these claims will be gone, simply forgotten, and the people, as it always happens, will forgive the authorities”, he said.
The Belarusian authorities have convinced the population that the devaluation of the national currency is inevitable due to Belarus’ limited monetary and economic independence from the Russian economy and the Russian rouble.
In addition, the government is aiming to stimulate economic growth by the weakening the national currency. In 2016, the government intends to provide support to state-owned enterprises in enhancing competitiveness of their export products, as well as to restrain imports with devaluation of the rouble. The state has limited tools to provide support for state-owned enterprises so as it is negotiating a new loan programme with international financial institutions. Moreover, the state anticipates that large state-owned enterprises will help maintaining a high employment rate, one of the key elements in Lukashenka’s socio-economic model.
Simultaneously, the authorities pay special attention to maintaining social and economic stability in the capital, where they direct most resources to buy the loyalty of the electorate. Amid deprecation of the national currency, the difference in wages of workers in the regions and the capital, as well as in various economic sectors is significant. For example, in December 2015, the average salary was almost BYR 10.5 million in Minsk and only BYR 6.2 million in the Mogilev region.
Overall, gradual devaluation of the national currency is unlikely to cause tension in society and growth of protest moods if the state ensures high employment and timely salaries and pensions.
The Belarusian authorities have launched a discussion on the moratorium or abolition of the death penalty under the pressure of Belarusian human rights activists and international community. Apparently, the authorities are interested in monitoring public sentiments and response to the possible abolition of the capital punishment. The introduction of a moratorium on the death penalty would depend on the dynamics in Belarusian-European relations, efforts of the civil society organisations and Western capitals.
In Grodno last week, the possibility of abolishing the death penalty in Belarus or introducing a moratorium was discussed.
The Belarusian authorities are likely to continue to support the death penalty in Belarus. During his rule, President Lukashenka pardoned only one person, and courts sentenced to death more than 400 people since the early 1990s. Over the past year, Belarusian courts sentenced to death several persons and one person was executed.
There are no recent independent polls about people’s attitude about the death penalty in Belarus. Apparently, this issue is not a priority for the population. In many ways, public opinion about the abolition of the death penalty would depend on the tone of the state-owned media reports.
That said, the Belarusian Orthodox Church and the Roman-Catholic Church stand for the abolition of the capital punishment, however their efforts in this regard only limit to public statements about their stance. Simultaneously, the authorities could have influenced public opinion about the death penalty through a focused media campaign in the state media. As they did, for example, with the nuclear power plant construction in Astravets. Initially unpopular project of the NPP construction was broadly promoted in the state media, and eventually, according to independent pollsters, was accepted by most population.